The White House has been a home to a number of smart people worthy of being called the President of the United States, and the ranking by IQ is a way to place them in a sort of a hierarchy of smartness. We love hierarchies after all. If we didn't, we wouldn't even have a president.
The fact that some presidents may have a higher IQ than the others does not imply that he is better than them - IQ measures only certain types of cognitive abilities. Although a low IQ may not be a sure-sign that you'd be a bad president, but I'd rather have a president with a high IQ.
The term "IQ" tends to be associated with political figures such as Abraham Lincoln, Winston Churchill, Barack Obama and others who all had notedly high IQs, while there are other presidents who aren't known as well for their intelligence. Don't be too shocked when you see where Trump is ranked!
Warren G. Harding served as the 29th president of the United States. His tenure lasted from 1921 to 1923, meaning he didn't serve a complete term. At the time of his death, he was still in office and was one of the most popular presidents ever recorded in US history, however, he was plagued by a string of scandals that took place under his administration, which caused his ratings to plummet.
The most famous scandal that happened under his administration was the Teapot Dome, a bribery incident that took place between the years 1921 and 1922. He was also famous for having an affair with a mistress, a revelation made by Nan Britton, who was just one of the mistresses. Today, in historical rankings, he is rated as one of the worst presidents in US history.
Just like Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan is one of the most famous icons of US politics, both at home and abroad. He died on June 5, 2014, and he is known for being the 40th President of the United States. He served for two full terms, between the years of 1981 and 1989. Prior to becoming president, he was a Hollywood actor, which certainly helped shape and form the public's opinion of him.
Given that he was the first Hollywood actor to become president, Reagan set an example that others, like Arnold Schwarzenegger, followed. First, create a popular media persona, and then use that media person to get more votes than your opponents. Even the current president, Donald J. Trump has certainly had help from his earlier media success in gaining the presidency.
Calvin Coolidge was the 30th president of the United States, and he served for two terms between the years of 1923 and 1929. He was a member of the Republican Party, and prior to politics, he worked as a lawyer in New England. He worked his way up the ladder, eventually earning him a seat in Massachusetts state politics, which he used to further grow his political career.
He is famous for his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919, which threw him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action - which is certainly helpful when you are aiming to become the US president. Afterwards, he became governor in his home state, which slowly led him to become the 29th vice president in 1920.
George W. Bush is one of the more recent US presidents, and he is also one of the more controversial ones, given how many people either like him or hate him. He is a member of the Republican Party, and he served as the 43rd president of the United States. He served for two full terms, eventually being replaced by Barack Obama, the first African American president in US history.
He served as president between the years 2001 and 2009, and his presidency was marked by the 9/11 attack. The 9/11 attack made George Bush change the entire foreign policy of the US, leading to several different wars and interventions across the whole world, most notably in the Middle East, a region which is still influenced by some of those decisions.
Ulysees Grant is more well-known by his last name - Grant. He was a prominent US Army general during the American Civil War, and he was a big factor in influencing the final outcome of the war. He also worked as the commanding general during the conclusion of the war. During his tenure, he was supervised by none other than Abraham Lincoln, one of the icons of US politics.
Grant led the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy, an outcome that changed how the world works even today. After the war, he served as the 18th US President, from 1869 to 1877, meaning he is a part of the US Presidents roster that got elected twice. Most US president get two terms, but that is not always the norm, as history has shown us.
Andrew Johnson served as the 17th US president, and given that not much happened during his tenure, he is not as well-known as the other presidents that have been featured on today's list. He served a single term between the years of 1865 and 1869. He was working as vice president when Abraham Lincoln got assassinated, which made him move up to the position of president.
Johnson started his office as the Civil War concluded, meaning he had an easier time being in office than some of his predecessors. As president, he favored a quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union - he had a vision where America would get reunited again, and continue its existence as a prosperous nation - something that he achieved, as everyone today agrees.
Gerald Ford is known for being the 38th president of the US, serving from 1974 to 1977. Prior to his elevation to the presidency, he served as the 40th vice president, between the years of 1973 and 1974. He is known as the only person in the US to ever serve in both positions (president and vice president) without being elected by the general public.
He is also known for having the shortest duration of his presidency in American history, which is 895 days - not even three full years. He was born in Omaha, Nebraska, and he attended the University of Michigan and Yale Law School. The attack on Pearl Harbor made him enlist in the US Naval Reserve, after which he left the US a lieutenant commander. He started his political career in 1949.
William Henry Harrison was known as an American military officer and a principal contributor to the War of 1812. He served as the 9th President of the United States. He was the last president in US history to be born before the American Revolution. One of the saddest parts of his tenure as president is the fact that he died of pneumonia just 31 days into his term.
There were no antibiotics back in that era, which is why even the flu killed thousands of people every year - not even presidents were immune from this. Due to his untimely death, William served the shortest term of all US Presidents. Another "milestone" from his career is the fact that he was the first US President to die while still being in office.
Herbert Hoover is known for his many different public roles, given that apart from being good in politics, he was also a successful engineer and businessman - truly a man that knew how to fit in in all areas of life. He served as the 31st President of the United States from the years 1929 to 1933, which sadly for him, was at the time of the Great Depression.
He was a member of the Republican Party, and he served as secretary of commerce in 1920, where he introduced the themes of business efficiency in the American business community. He provided full governmental support for the standardization of trade and logistical efficiency. However, as president, his role in leading the country got overshadowed by the onset of the Great Depression.
Richard Milhous Nixon is one of the most famous US presidents, even in international circles. While he may not be as well-known abroad as George Washington, many Americans, even younger ones, do know him. He is a polarizing figure, much like current US President, Donald J. Trump. Nixon served as the 37th president of the US, from the years of 1969 to 1974. He resigned from office before his term ended, and he is the only person to do so.
Before his role as US president, he served as the 36th vice president of the United States, from the years of 1953 to 1961. Prior to that, he was a US representative and a Senator in the state of California. He was born in Yorba Linda, California, and he completed undergraduate studies at Whittier College. Afterward, he graduated from Duke University, getting a degree in law in 1937, two years before the onset of WWII.
Millard Fillmore served as the 13th president of the US, between the years of 1850 to 1853. He was the last member of the Whig Party while still being in the White House. Before his presidency, he also worked as a US Representative from the state of New York. He was then elected as the country's 12th vice president back in the year 1848.
He got elevated to the rank of president after the death of US president Zachary Taylor. He was one of the most instrumental figures to get the "Compromise of 1850" to be passed, which was a type of bargain that led to a short-lived truce in the battle over slavery in the US. However, he failed to win the Whig Party nomination for president during the vote of 1852.
Zachary Taylor was the 12th US president, serving for a short period of time after his election in 1849. However, he suffered an untimely death, after which he was replaced by Vice President Millard Fillmore. Interestingly, both he and his vice president share a similar IQ score - measured at around 135. Perhaps in some situations, similarities do attract each other?
Before becoming a US president, he had a successful career as an officer in the US Army (just like other government officials before him), rising to the rank of major general. He became a well regarded national hero due to his victories in the Mexican-American War. This title of national hero won him the election to the White House, despite him having vague and inconsistent types of political beliefs.
James Buchanan was the 15th President of the US, serving a single term from 1857 to 1861. Today historians often criticize James for his failure to address the issue of slavery, which was rampant in the US during that period. His inaction eventually led to the secession of the southern states of the US, resulting in the North's army attacking the South, leading to the American Civil War.
He was a member of the Democratic Party, and he served as the 17th US Secretary of State, as well as in the US Senate. He was born in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, to parents of Ulster-Scots descent. Before becoming active in politics, he was successful professionally and became a prominent lawyer in the town of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. His political career started to grow with his entry to the House of Representatives in 1820.
Lyndon B. Johnson is one of the most recent US presidents to be featured in today's IQ list, which is why he is one of the rare ones to have a full-color portrait picture. He was often referred to in the media by his initials, LBJ. He served as the 36th President of the United States, for a single term, between the years of 1963 and 1969.
He became president after his short stint as vice president, which lasted from 1961 to 1963. He was a member of the Democratic party, originally active in the state of Texas. He also served as a United States Representative in the Senate. He is one of only four people in the US that have served in all four types of federally elected positions.
Harry S. Truman is known for becoming president of the US after the death of the legendary president and US leader during WWII, Franklin D. Roosevelt. He was known to the public as a WWI veteran, which certainly helped raise his public opinion and rating numbers. His presidency marked the slow beginning of the Cold War, a period which lasted for decades, resulting in the ultimate end of the Soviet Union.
Harry Truman is known for implementing the Marshall Plan, one of the most expensive and ambitious reconstruction and finance programs in the history of the world. The Marshall Plan resulted in the complete rebuild of war-ravaged Europe, bringing dozens of countries from the north and west parts of the continent into the US sphere of influence, which eventually saved those countries from coming under the influence of the USSR.
George Washington is arguably the most famous of all US presidents. His fame is international, given that he was the first ever president of the country that managed to become the leader of the free world, as well as an economic powerhouse. He served for two terms, from 1789 to 1797, making him the only president to serve two terms in the 18th century (all other US leaders were elected in the subsequent centuries).
He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, an important position that set events in motion for hundreds of years afterward (and even today). He served as the Commander-in-Chief of the US Army during the American Revolutionary War, and he presided over the 1787 convention in which the United States Constitution was first drafted.
William Taft served as the 27th President of the United States. He only served for a single term, from the year 1909 to 1913. In today's history, he isn't especially well-known, due to how few things happened during his reign. Of course, just one year after his presidency, WWI started, and that changed everything, but it also made his successor play a much bigger role in international politics.
William was lucky to not have to lead the US during World War I, as that would have been a tough task for any leader to handle. Apart from being the US president, William also served as the tenth Chief Justice of the US (from the year 1921 to 1930), and he is the only person in history to have held these two offices.
James Monroe is one of the earliest US presidents (from the 19th century) - he was 5th in line and served between the years of 1817 and 1825. Monroe was the last president of the Virginia dynasty (a trend that highlighted the fact that four of the first five US presidents were from the state of Virginia), and his presidency ushered what is today known as the Era of Good Feelings.
He was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He was a part of the planter class, and he participated in the American Revolutionary War. However, he was gravely injured during the Battle of Trenton, where a musket ball hit his shoulder. After his military career, he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress, after studying law under the guidance of Thomas Jefferson.
Franklin Pierce is one of the lesser known US Presidents, given that little had happened during the years of his reign. He served as the 14th President, between the years of 1853 and 1857. He was a member of the Democratic Party, and he is known for being unsuccessful in preventing the setting of the stage in US politics that ultimately led to the American Civil War.
He was born in New Hampshire, where he served in the US House of Representatives and in the US Senate until he resigned from that position in 1842. He led a private law practice in New Hampshire that was widely successful, so much so that he got appointed US Attorney for his home state in 1845. He took part in the famous Mexican-American War as part of the US Army.
Chester Alan Arthur was one of the few presidents that were never elected, since he took office after James Garfield's assassination, after which he served for the better part of a full term. Arthur was originally an American attorney and his early involvement with politics was with the New York branch of the Republican Party.
Arthur's politics didn't particularly please other Republicans, and this led him to be one of the few Presidents to fail to win his party nomination for re-election. Some historians suspect that this maneuver was planned and that Arthur purposely didn't campaign very aggressively because he knew about his fatal kidney disease - a condition that he kept secret from all. In the end, his kidney disease led to his death less than two years after the end of his mandate as president.
John Tyler was the 10th President of the United States, after briefly being the tenth vice president in 1841 he ascended to the presidency after William Henry Harrison's death (who passed away from pneumonia one month after he was elected). Tyler was the first vice president to become chief executive due to the death of his predecessor, setting a precedent that continued to occur in the future.
Tyler was born on March 29, 1790, in a good standing family in Virginia. He began his political career in 1811 when he was elected to the Virginia legislature at the age of 21. He served as a United States Representative (1817-21), as state governor (1825-27), and as a United States Senator (1827-36). After the end of his presidency, Tyler moved to his 1200-acre plantation and raised a family with his second wife. Tyler died at the age of 71 on January 18, 1862, in Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy.
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was an American congressman, governor of Ohio and 19th president of the United States (from 1877 to 1881). Hayes was a lawyer who defended slaves in court proceedings, he fought and was seriously wounded in the Union Army during the American Civil War. His presidency started during the Reconstruction Era, a period that made it possible for the African Americans to have the same level of freedom and education as the rest of the citizens.
Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822. He was educated in different schools in Delaware, Norwalk, Ohio and Middletown, Connecticut. In 1842, he graduated at the top of his class from Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. Three years later, in 1845, he earned a law degree from Harvard University. In 1876, Hayes was elected as president in one of the most contentious elections in national history.
Barack Obama was the last president of the US to serve before the current president, Donald Trump, who has was elected in the 2016 election. Due to his "recentness" as being president, people may remember more details about Obama, but sadly his high IQ score got overshadowed by other scandals, such as the "birther" conspiracies that plagued the early parts of his presidency.
He served as the 44th President of the United States, for a total of two terms, which means he was in office from 2009 to 2017. Apart from that, he is famous for being the first African American to assume the presidency, which was a major feat for him and the country. Before he became president, he served as a senator in Illinois from 2005 to 2008.
Dwight Eisenhower is a well-known and positively regarded figure in US politics. He served as the 34th President of the US, in the years after WWII (1953-1961). Just like most other successful and well-liked presidents, he got elected for two consecutive terms. Before his work as US president, he was an Army general, which helped boost his ratings and credibility later on in his political career. Many other US government officials started in the same way.
During WWII he served as a five-star general and was Supreme Commander of the allied forces that arrived in Europe to fight against Germany and its allies. Apart from that, he was also responsible for planning and organizing the allied efforts in the invasion of North Africa, as that region was rich with oil and was an important asset during the war.
These days, a name like "Martin van Buren" sounds like you are talking about an international Dutch DJ, but that was not the case in the 19th century with this US president. Martin was one of the earliest US presidents (he was the 8th in line) and he served for a single term during the years of 1837 to 1841. Previously, he served as vice president under Andrew Jackson.
He is also known as the founder of the Democratic Party and as a holder of several other official positions in the early US government. He won the race for being the president, by vowing to continue the policies of Andrew Jackson, who was very popular at that time in history. Apart from that he also worked as the tenth Secretary of State during the years of 1829 to 1831.
Andrew Jackson has a lot of similarities to the previously mentioned Martin van Buren - for one, he was the 7th President of the US, meaning he is Martin's predecessor, and they also have a similar IQ, which has been measured at around 145 points - an above average figure. Many other US presidents also share a high IQ, meaning that there could be a correlation between high cognitive abilities and becoming president.
He started in life as a soldier, and eventually led the US as president for two terms (1829-1837). He was extremely popular during his reign, which is why his successor (the previously mentioned Martin van Buren) was able to easily win the elections by promising to keep doing the same policies that Andrew Jackson had originally started.
Benjamin Harrison is remembered in history as being the 23rd President of the United State of Americas. He served a single term, from 1889 to 1893. He got elected at an old age, which is why he died from natural causes just a few years after his term was finished (in 1901). He served during the American Civil War, as part of the Union Army, where he held the rank of colonel.
Benjamin was the grandson of the 9th President of the US, which certainly helped his political career and networking opportunities. This combination helped Benjamin and his grandfather create the first grandson and grandfather duo to take control of the US presidency. He is also known for being the grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, one of the original Founding Fathers.
Grover Cleveland started his career as an American lawyer, before "graduating" to becoming the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. That is right - after he was done with his first term, he only got elected after another person was elected as US president, which is why he can claim to be both the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. No other president achieved this.
He is the only president known to not serve two consecutive terms, something that hasn't even happened in the 20th and 21st century. He was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats group and worked hard to oppose high trading tariffs, inflation, imperialism and the giving of subsidies to farmers and businesses. He believed the state needed to minimize its effect on the local economy.
George H. W. Bush, famous for being the father of George W. Bush among other things, was the 43rd President of the United States. He served for a single term, from 1989 to 1993. Before he assumed the presidency, he worked as the 43rd Vice President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Although his son is famous for starting wars in the Middle East, it was actually George H. W. Bush who began this tradition, with the First Gulf War.
He is a member of the Republican Party (just like his son), and he has also served the US as a congressman, ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence. Before becoming active in politics, he worked in the public sector, where he just went by the name of George Bush, until eventually using his full initials. His presidency also saw the disbandment of the USSR, which helped ease the strains on his foreign policy.
William McKinley served a single term as the 25th President of the United States, between the years of 1897 and 1901. He did get elected for a second term, but he got assassinated 6 months into his second term. He was a great wartime leader, as he led the US into one of its first international victories in the Spanish-American war. He also raised tariffs in order to protect the American economy.
He was also adamant in maintaining the nation's gold standard, and he rejected all inflationary proposals. This sits in stark contrast to how the economy of the US and other developed countries in the world works today, where the state tries to find an optimal level of inflation in order to discourage the hoarding of money, while also making it easier for businesses to borrow currency.
His full name is James Knox Polk, and he is known for being the 11th President of the United States. He born back in the 18th century (in the year 1795), which is why there aren't a lot of photographs available from when he first started in politics. Before becoming president, he worked as Speaker of the House of Representatives.
After his tenure as Speaker of the House of Representatives, he became Governor of the state of Tennessee (from 1839 to 1841). He was a protégé of Andrew Jackson, which is why the public liked him so much. He was a member of the Democratic Party, just like his mentor, Andrew Jackson. During Polk's presidency, the US expanded its territories due to the victories over Mexico in the Mexican-American war.
Bill Clinton was the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as a member of the Democratic Party. He attended more than one university including the University of Oxford and Yale Law School. Prior to his presidency, he was elected as Attorney General of Arkansas. During his run, he passed several acts and reforms such as the State Children's Health Insurance Program, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, and a welfare reform.
When Clinton left office, he did so with the highest end-of-office approval rating since World War II and has consistently been ranked in the top 3 in historical rankings of US presidents. He has assisted in peace processes like those in Northern Ireland and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Clinton has also created the "William J. Clinton Foundation" which deals with international concerns such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming. Furthermore, he's an author of his autobiography, called "My Life."
Jimmy Carter was the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. One of his notable works is the co-founding of the Carter Center which won him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002. Carter was a graduate of the United States Naval Academy with a degree in science. He thereafter joined the United States Navy and later became motivated by the racial segregation and the civil rights movements.
Prior to his presidency, he was elected as Governor of Georgia and he stood for affirmative action for ethnic minorities. Another notable moment for Carter was his pardoning of all evaders of the Vietnam War draft. In addition, he established a national energy policy as well as the Department of Energy and Education. Carter became the longest-retired president in US history in 2012. He's also a noted world-traveler due to the many peace negotiations he had to attend.
James Abram Garfield was the 20th president. He was elected and started serving on March 4 in the year 1881, but shortly after he started serving as a president he was assassinated by a shooting that happening in a downtown train station. Garfield fought for his life for 80 agonizing days, but his severely infected gunshot wound eventually led to his death.
Garfield was raised by a single mother in a small and humble farm located in Ohio. Growing up in order to survive he had to work everything, including on a canal boat in his youth. Starting from his 17th birthday Garfield attended several Ohio schools, after which he studied at the Williams College in Williamstown Massachusetts. He graduated in 1856 and a year after that he started his career in politics as a Republican. Before he was elected President of the United States, Garfield served nine terms in the House of Representatives and was elected to the Senate.
Franklin D. Roosevelt served as a governor of New York when he was elected as the 32nd president of United States of America. During the start of his tenure as president of the US, the country was in a deep monetary trouble (this was better known as the Great Depression), so in order to remedy the situation Roosevelt tried to restore the public confidence, by proclaiming a bank holiday and speaking directly to the people in a series of radio broadcasts also known as the "fireside chats."
Roosevelt was born in New York, where he attended the Gorton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. He started to practice law in New York and in 1905 he married his cousin - they had six children together. Roosevelt won the election to the New York Senate in 1910 and served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy during World War 1. Roosevelt was the only president to be elected four times in a row.
Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States (from 1901 to 1909). He's one of the four faces depicted on Mount Rushmore and he played a major role in the Progressive Era in the United States during the early 1900s. He was born with health problems (such as asthma) which he managed to overcome. He had a wide range of interests showcased in his books, such as "The Naval War of 1812."
In addition, Roosevelt was a war hero as he led the Rough Riders in the Spanish-American War. He became President at age 42 which makes him the youngest one yet. He put forward his "Square Deal" domestic policies which strived for fairness in regards to the common citizen. In fact, Roosevelt prompted the building of numerous national parks, monuments, and forests intended to preserve national resources. On top of his achievements, he won the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in ending the Russo-Japanese War.
John F. Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States from 1961 until 1963 when he was assassinated. During his presidency, the Cold War was at its peak so much of Kennedy's service was in regards to managing the relations with the Soviet Union. He was a Harvard University graduate and as a kid, he was noted to score 199 points on the Otis intelligence Test. He has been ranked as the 3rd smartest president according to public polls.
One of Kennedy's accomplishments was the winning of the Pulitzer Prize for Biography for his work "Profiles in Courage." He became a president at the age of 43 which marked him as the second youngest to do so. As a president, he had to deal with high tensions with communist states such as Cuba while at home, he oversaw the establishment of the Peace Corps and he supported the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. He was a member of the Democratic Party and was the leader of the country during World War I. At this time he presented a foreign policy called "Wilsonianism" and was one of the key figures at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, where he brought up a new League of Nations though he didn't get Senate approval for the US to partake in the league.
He earned a Ph.D. in political science and was a teacher at a number of schools. Later, he ran as the Governor of New Jersey which earned him a favorable reputation as a progressive reformer. He was noted to use Darwinian evolution logic as a basis for his presidency. He has earned high rankings in several polls regarding US presidents. Wilson had a so-called "New Freedom" agenda that included acts which established new economic regulations enforced by the federal government.
Donald J. Trump is one of the most controversial figures to ever enter US politics. Ronald Reagan was the first Hollywood actor to be elected as president, but Trump took things to a different level. Despite the love and hate relationship many people have with him, it is undoubtedly that Trump has set things in motion that are going to influence the world for years to come.
He is currently serving as the 45th President of the United States, with his predecessor being Barack Obama from the Democratic Party. He won the 2016 election by a large margin over his opponent Hillary Clinton, and he first entered office on January 20, 2017. During the nomination, he was an outsider to the Republican Party, yet he managed to win the nomination despite not being the party's favorite.
John Quincy Adams was the 6th President of the United States from 1825 to 1829 and he also worked as a diplomat, minister, ambassador and a treaty negotiator. He was adherent to US Republican values which influenced his shaping of American foreign policy. His diplomatic skills helped with the negotiation of treaties such as the Treaty of Ghent which put an end to the War of 1812. He was also included in the negotiation with Great Britain over the US border with Canada in 1818.
Another treaty that he negotiated was the so-called Adams-Onis Treaty which made room for the purchase of Florida from the Spanish. Adams' presidency was marked with his goals to modernize the economy and to promote education. He even paid off a large part of the national debt. Adams has been labeled the only child prodigy among the presidents due to his estimated IQ of 170. He was fluent in several languages including Dutch and Latin, and he could read and write Italian and Ancient Greek.
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States from 1861 to 1865 when he was assassinated. He was the leader of the United State during the Civil War and he helped to preserve the Union as well as abolish slavery and modernize the economy. He was mainly self-educated, became a lawyer and was elected to the United States House of Representatives and opposed the Mexican-American War. He also took part in very popular debates with his rival Stephen A. Douglas who was a Democrat.
Lincoln is often ranked as the greatest President of the United States and applauded for his heightened nationalism, sense of business, fight against violence amongst humans and adherence to the principles of the Founding Fathers. Lincoln was also noted for using Euclidian geometry to aid him in choosing right from wrong when it came to making important political decisions. In addition, his actions were influenced by the principles of John Locke and Edmund Burke in regards to liberty and tradition.
John Adams was the second President of the United States from 1797 to 1801. He was one of the Founding Fathers and a lawyer, diplomat, and statesman. He came up with a successful but questionable legal defense of the British soldiers after the Boston Massacre because he stood by the right to counsel and the "protection of innocence" rule. He helped to prompt Congress to declare independence, assisted Thomas Jefferson in drafting the Declaration, and he played a role in negotiating the peace treaty with Great Britain.
John Adams has been praised for his fight against radicals and labeled as perhaps the most independent-minded of the founders. In fact, even though he was with the Federalists, he would still disagree with them as equally as with the Democratic-Republicans. He would make good decisions despite facing a strong opposition which speaks for his qualities.
James Madison was the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817 who he is known as the "Father of the Constitution" due to his crucial involvement with the putting together of the United States Constitution as well as the Bill of Rights. He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Progress in the times of the American Revolution. He contributed to the production of The Federalist Papers and later alongside Thomas Jefferson he organized the Democratic-Republican Party.
Madison was concerned with social physics and was a student of John Witherspoon. He was also interested in the political ideas of Charles Montesquieu that dealt with theories of human behavior influenced by certain works of Isaac Newton. The works of Newton in question refer to the logic of Newtonian mechanics and the three laws of motion. A government which is based on this kind of logic is called a Newtonian government. Therefore, this played a role in Madison's contribution to the framing of the US Constitution.
Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809 and he was the main author of the Declaration of Independence. He was born and raised in Virginia, which he represented in the Continental Congress during the American Revolution. When he was president he was also concerned with the nation's shipping and trade activities in regards to the Barbary pirates, as well as organizing the "Louisiana Purchase" that basically doubled the country's territory.
Jefferson excelled at several skills including mathematics, mechanics, and surveying. He was a notable architect and a great philosopher. In fact, he was at the top of the American Philosophical Society. He was also an eminent linguist and could speak a couple of languages. He was the founder of the University of Virginia. All of this contributed to him earning epithets such as the "last person to know everything" and a "walking encyclopedia."
The fact of the matter is that IQ is not the definitive measure of a person's overall intelligence (and especially in regards to social and emotional abilities). There are several different standardized IQ tests, with most setting the average for a given population at a value between 95 and 105. If someone scores between those two values, that person is regarded as being "competent."
The term "IQ" was invented by psychologist William Stern, which he used in one of his writings in 1912. Historically speaking, the first IQ tests weren't meant to search for geniuses among us, instead, they were used for educational purposes, school testing, or assessing the degree of intellectual disability a person has. Only in recent years has the trend appeared of using IQ as a way to measure "smartness."
Another interesting thing to note about a person's IQ is that it is not limited to just genetics alone. While having smart parents certainly does influence how a person is going to develop, there are several different factors parents can undertake, in order to ensure that their child has the highest IQ possible. One such factor that can help any child, is to make sure to breastfeed naturally.
According to a recent study, children that were breastfed had higher IQ on average, and they did better in academic circles. The study was performed in 2008, and it measured the cognitive development and abilities of children during a 6.5-year period, meaning the data found by the study is relevant and well measured. The study concluded that there is a direct correlation between breastfeeding and higher scores on IQ tests.
There is no study that has found if either gender is smarter than the other, but there are some other interesting facts that scientists have detected. For one, it appears that earlier in life, girls develop faster than boys, and this faster development also has an effect on IQ scores - which is why young girls usually score higher on such tests than boys from the same age group.
On the other hand, as the children mature and the years pass, the pendulum swings in the other direction. In the end, there are several different schools of thought on the subject, with no one coming to a complete conclusion. At the earlier ages, girls excelled at language skills (which they often acquire earlier), and memory skills (such as remembering where objects are).
It appears that as with everything else in life, there are pros and cons to having a lot of anything. Autism, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects different areas of the brain, has been usually linked to lower performance and cognitive abilities. However, British researchers have found a surprising connection between high intelligence and autism, which was a groundbreaking find.
The scientists released the discovery of 40 genes and their markers, that have been linked to human intelligence. They found out that a lot of these genes were also connected to autism spectrum disorders. Apart from that factor, the researchers also found out that a bigger head size in infants, as well as increased tallness, were also factors that were linked to autism. So, be careful in wishing how tall you want to be, there may be certain cons to that.
If you or anyone else is looking for more motivation to continue with their school or academic studies, look no further. Just like scientists have found out that breastfeeding is one of the rare factors that can positively influence a person's IQ, the same goes for becoming more accomplished at school. The more years a person spends in school, the bigger the chance that their IQ is going to improve.
The counter-intuitive thing here is that for most people, intelligence can influence their decision to stay at school, but the same works in reverse. Most movies and media these days showcase smart people as high school or college dropouts, but according to this study, those cases are only an exception to the norm, with most smart people deciding to stay for long periods of time in school.
There are a few weird things going on with each subsequent generation of humans (at least in the last few centuries or so). For one, scientists have been baffled by what appears to be a never-ending increase in human height. Another such factor is that it seems that as each generation comes and goes, the next one that comes along has a few points higher IQ.
According to an article released in the Huffington Post, due to the increased standard of living (like medical care, education, and job opportunities), each new generation of humans is having a slightly higher IQ. A study followed 751 people, who were divided into 2 groups. One group was born in 1921, and the other in 1936. Eventually, the study found a 3.7 IQ point lead in the group that was born in 1936.